Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are substances that when transported are a risk to health, safety, property or the environment. Identifying dangerous goods is that the initiative to scale back the risks posed by the merchandise with proper packaging, communication, handling, and storage.
Dangerous Goods are classified into 9 classes. They are as follows:
1. Explosives-Explosives are materials or items which have the power to rapidly conflagrate or detonate as a consequence of reaction.
2. Gases– Gases are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which have a vapor pressure of 300 kPa or greater at 50°c or which are completely gaseous at 20°c at standard air pressure , and items containing these substances
3. Flammable Liquids-Flammable liquids are defined by dangerous goods regulations as liquids, mixtures of liquids or liquids containing solids in solution or suspension which give off a flammable vapour (have a flash point) at temperatures of less than 60-65°C, liquids offered for transport at temperatures at or above their flash point or substances transported at elevated temperatures during a liquid state and which give off a flammable vapour at a temperature at or below the utmost transport temperature.
4. Flammable Solids; Spontaneous Combustibles; ‘Dangerous When Wet’ Materials-Flammable solids are materials which, under conditions encountered in transport, are readily combustible or may cause or contribute to fireside through friction, self-reactive substances which are susceptible to undergo a strongly chemical reaction or solid desensitized explosives. Also included are substances which are susceptible to spontaneous heating under normal transport conditions, or to heating up in touch with air, and are consequently susceptible to erupt and substances which emit flammable gases or become spontaneously flammable when in touch with water.
5. Oxidizers; Organic Peroxides-Oxidizers are defined by dangerous goods regulations as substances which can cause or contribute to combustion, generally by yielding oxygen as a results of a redox reaction .
6. Toxic Substances; Infectious Substances- Toxic substances are those which are liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed, inhaled or by skin contact. Infectious substances are those which are known or are often reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Dangerous goods regulations define pathogens as microorganisms, like bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi, or other agents which may cause disease in humans or animals.
7. Radioactive Material – Dangerous goods regulations define material as any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and therefore the total activity exceeds certain pre-defined values. A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus and which consequently is subject to decay.
8. Corrosives – Corrosives are substances which by chemical process degrade or disintegrate other materials upon contact.
9. Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods- Miscellaneous dangerous goods are substances and articles which during transport present a danger or hazard not covered by other classes. This class encompasses, but isn’t limited to, environmentally hazardous substances, substances that are transported at elevated temperatures, miscellaneous articles and substances, genetically modified organisms and micro-organisms and (depending on the tactic of transport) magnetized materials and aviation regulated substances.